After reading two articles from Clark and Kozma, I was able to compare the two fundamental views of relationship between media and learning. To me, as a person who considers the learning process from a constructivism perspective, I believe the media does and will influence students’ learning, as learners construct their own knowledge by interacting with media and the learning environment. However, I understand that early studies of media theory and instructions, in the 1980s, were much more limited, as the capabilities and symbol systems of the medium was relatively less developed and capable, which resulted in Cozma separating between medium and method.
In today’s world, I believe, the media has become sophisticated and the interactions between learner’s cognitive processes and the environment surrounding learners and the media are so complex that it would be impossible to distinguish medium as mere delivery vehicles and method as instructional interventions. Additionally, rather than pursuing the absolute necessary conditions for learning in media theory that Cozma sought, it seems more important to design media that can create a sufficient condition with high possibility among various learning environment and contents and learners.
Also, one of the questions I would like to think about in the class is whether there is a digital or media using gap between learners, or if it creates another educational gap.
I appreciate the last point you have made about educational gap, especially because such gaps became highly prounounced especially in developing nations, when students and teachers were forced to take their learning and teaching online due to the pandemic. While it is true that teachnology and learning have become intrinsically linked with each other in current times, we as researchers should not forget how access to technology requires access to devices and connectivity, entities that requires privilege and a certain economic ability on the part of both and students.
The question here is, in such situations, do we say that learning does not and cannot happen? Should technology and media be a necessary condition for learning?
I totally agree with both of yours point about the educational gap. When we think about media and learning, this should always be one of our biggest concerns because even in a world where we “need” media for learning, there will still be an opportunity gap between learners. I think Clark’s emphasis on questioning cost-effectiveness of learning with media intersects with our concern, even though he was not directly emphasizing the same point.
Reading both of your comments, I am starting to wonder “what is learning” then. I believe there are various types of learning in this world and I have clearly experienced that the knowledge and learning in Korean context are different from those of the U.S. context. That’s why I have been trying to make sense and understand the U.S. education until now. I think knowledge and learning are changed over time. For example, in the past, educators focused on helping their students to acquire knowledge as a competency that they should possess, but nowadays, students’ communication skills, media literacy competency, or creativity thinking are becoming more important competencies. Therefore, it is likely that the learning will be different due to such a change in the social and cultural context.
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